Peran Islam Dalam Pembentukan Negara:Studi Tentang Pembentukan Negara Di Madinah Masa : Nabi Muhammad SAW dan al-Khulafa al- Rasyidun

Abdul Aziz, 033382 (2008) Peran Islam Dalam Pembentukan Negara:Studi Tentang Pembentukan Negara Di Madinah Masa : Nabi Muhammad SAW dan al-Khulafa al- Rasyidun. PhD thesis, UIN Sunan Kalijaga.

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Abstract

This dissertation examines the contributions of Islam to state formation. This study focuses on the Arab Moslem organization in the era of Muhammad SAW and Khulafa’ Al-Rashidun, which is understood by many Moslem thinkers as a well-organized pattern of an Islamic State. This understanding is based on the interpretation through normative ideological approach by using instant religious assumptions. The tendency of those Moslem thinkers is then followed by the leaders of modern Moslem movements and organizations in many places. Their normative ideological understanding of the formulation of Madinah Moslem society organization as an Islamic state leads to a thought that the formulation is sacred. This in turn implies that such formulation must be followed if the religious legal consequences are to be avoided. This sacred assumption, however, may lead somebody or a group of people to a wrong religious faith. The ideological formulation of the Islamic state requires a close examination as to its validity through the reconstruction of a proportional contribution of Islam to the process of state formation by Muhammad SAW and his four Chaliphs. This reconstruction leads to an understanding of development that is close to the sociological historical reality of the Arab Moslem community in that era. This study is a qualitative descriptive library research. This qualitative descriptive approach is employed in the research preparation, data collection and data analysis. It focuses on the history; therefore, data are analyzed using a sociological historical interpretation. The main weakness of this method in understanding dynamic and continuous historical indications is resolved by applying the sociological process approach that is known as figurational sociology. This research finds that the presence of Islam becomes the centripetal impulses for the Arab society in Arab peninsula. The Arab society that once was stateless and relied on tribal ties underwent a fundamental change in the form of new society organization called Ummah in Madinah. Ummah is principally a religious society union as opposed to a politically-authoritarian-based-society union. However, in the next development, the Ummah basic elements develop into a set of centralized power apparatus categorically called as chiefdom or pre-state. Although the territories of the chiefdom were extended to include regions far beyond the Madinah City, the city remained to be the center of power of the Chiefdom until the end period of the leadership of the fourth Chaliph—Ali bin Abi Thalib. Practically, it is called as Chiefdom Madinah. This research also finds that within the process of Ummah characteristic change, assimilation of Islam and Arab jahiliyyah tradition occurred. This means that both Islam and jahiliyyah Arab tradition contribute to the emergence of “Chiefdom Madinah.” Therefore, it is not appropriate to consider all practices of the “Chiefdom Madinah” organization in the era of Rasullullah Muhammad SAW and the four Khulafaur Al-rashidun as an Islamic state and to regard it as a textual reference that bears certain law consequences. The practice of organizing power in that era is temporary (ad hoc) and absorbs local social cultural elements and has not shown its mature form. Accordingly, this is not the ideal type that can be instantly imitated and applied by any people in any place. “Chiefdom Madinah” is the answer of Muhammad SAW and his four Chaliphs to the challenges of their time. The main social changes brought forth by the extension of the political territories colony leads to new challenges that can not be answered by “Chiefdom Madinah”. This eventually ends the Chiefdom within less than 50 years. In a sociological context, the process by which a state formation evolves as a process that gives birth to civilizations the rise and fall of “Chiefdom Madinah” followed by the emergence and demise of Bani Umayyah and of the subsequence dynasties—constitutes as chains of change, at both socio-genesis and psychogenesis levels, experienced by the Arab Moslems in their journey towards the pinnacle of their civilization. This, indeed, is a unique continuum line which will never be equally shared by other Moslem societies of different times and spaces in their journey. Thus, each Moslem society is inevitably required to develop its own creativities and innovations in the formation of the state in accordance with the demand of its time. In shorts, this study offers a new perspective that places the contribution of Islam to the formation of a state as an integral part of a long process by which a society or a group of societies develop their civilization.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Additional Information / Pembimbing: Promotor:Prof.Dr.H.Bambang Pranowo
Subjects: Ilmu Agama Islam
Depositing User / Editor: Khairunisa Etikasari, SIP, MIP Pegawai
Date Deposited: 22 Jan 2015 09:35
Last Modified: 22 Jan 2015 09:35
URI: http://digilib.uin-suka.ac.id/id/eprint/15272

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