OTENTISITAS DAN PEMAHAMAN HADIS-HADIS MUKHTALIF (STUDI PEMIKIRAN IBNU TAYMIYAH, 1263-1328 M)

AGUSNI YAHYA, NIM. 983102 (2009) OTENTISITAS DAN PEMAHAMAN HADIS-HADIS MUKHTALIF (STUDI PEMIKIRAN IBNU TAYMIYAH, 1263-1328 M). Doctoral thesis, UIN SUNAN KALIJAGA.

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Abstract

This dissertation discusses authentic hadiths, mukhtalif and tanawwu’ al-‘ibadah hadiths, and hadiths about non-Moslems according to Ibn Taimiyyah. This study is inspired by a perception that Ibn Taimiyyah is ‘inclusive’ of internal Islam and ‘exclusive’ of non-Moslem in understanding hadiths. Employing a library research, this study applies historical approaches (intellectual history) in which the data taken from Ibn Taimiyyah’s manuscripts and other writers discussing Ibn Taimiyyah are analyzed. The theoretical framework employed is the “behavioralism” theory of Robert F. Berkhofer, JR. and “theoretical proposition” about hadiths related with the title of this dissertation. Both the approach and theory are applied to reveal situational and conditional factors of Ibn Taimiyyah era that enabled his organisms to engage in activities of revitalizing hadiths/sunnah that become guidance for the ummah. With the approach and theory, it is revealed that Ibn Taimiyyah has great attention to hadith as much as other branches of Islamic knowledge. The condition of the weak ummah in implementing sunnah that is greatly influenced by mutakallimin, philosophers, sufis, and madhhab fanaticism has encouraged Ibn Taimiyyah to strengthen the position and function of hadith (hadith authenticity). Therefore, he works hard to enlighten and encourage ummah to defend sunnah and Islamic syarrah, respond to religious practices that weaken and disregard sunnah, promote the techings of Salaf and Ahl al-Hadits scholars (orthodoxy), and criticize mutakallimin, philosophers and Sufi followers to purify ummah’s thoughts by returning to al-Qur’an and sunnah as the main foundation of religion. He emphasizes that hadith should be preferred to logic (aql) and zawq as the standard religious faith. The definition of mutawatir hadiths is not only seen from the quantity of their chains of transmitters (sanad) but also their acceptance among scholars, their extensive implementation in ummah and scholars’ consensus (‘ijma). The sahib eihad hadiths that give knowledge certainty could be regarded as the foundation of faith. Hence, the faith matters that are settled based on sahih ahad hadiths should be uphold by Moslems. Related with mukhtalif hadiths, Ibn Taimiyyah prioritizes the method of al-jam’u wa al-tawfig so that they are implemented in accordance with the situation and condition. His tariTh method does not recommend that marjuh hadiths should be ignored. Rather they should be implemented based on the condition. With regard to situation and condition, a rajih hadiths is sometimes considered as marjuh, and the reverse. On tanawwu’ al—ibadah hadiths, Ibn Taimiyyah not only prioritizes their qualities but also their aspects that please worshippers (in certain conditions, afdal becomes mafdul, mafdul becomes afdal, in accordance with the mood of the worshippers and and jama’ah). The importance of the hadiths can be seen from the meanings of their text and the psychological condition of the worshippers. All of the Prophet’s hadiths of worshipping is necessary and has the right to be implemented without any discrimination among one another. The best way to follow sunnah is to implement all in turn because each sunnah of the Prophet has its own hikmah. When leading a jama’ah prayer, an imam should take into consideration the aspiration, preferences, and psychology of the jama’ah to maintain their solemnity and enlighten them (lita’lifihim wa lita’limihim). Doing mufaraqah that may create conflicts among ummah is a sin, and showing fanaticism to an imam (leader), madhhab or mainstream in worshipping is a disproportional attitude (jahilan zaliman). Ibn Taimiyyah’s inclusive act is generated by ummah situation that follow madhhab fanaticism in which they often fight about the problems of rajih and afdal hadiths. This condition goes against the Islamic condition of Salaf in which they live in peace and democracy in worshipping and ukhuwwah (brotherhood). Hadiths understanding (fiqh al-hadith) of religious pluralism of Ibn Taimiyyah is textual and exclusive. He is an hegemonistic inclusivist thinker who admits some true elements of other religions, but excessively prioritizes the religion and culture of Islam. His attitudes are influenced by fiqh al-hadith of pre-modern and Islamic politic supremacy era. This pattern is considered not-conducive for the maintenance and promotion of pluralism and multiculture system of the “nation state” in the modem era. When discussing hadiths on religious pluralism, the only intension of Ibn Taimiyyah is to warn Moslems who have been influenced by non-Islam religions and cultures so that they return to and love their own religion and culture. He is also very responsive to non-Moslems because they have been diluting the purity of Islamic faith and threatening Islamic governments. Ibn Taimiyyah’s attitudes towards non-Moslems are considered as a reference and inspiration for mujahidin movements and the modem era Wahabi puritans. Ibn Taimiyyah is regarded as “revivalist muhaddith” because he consistently defends the Prophet’s honor and hadiths and keeps encouraging Moslems to implement sunnah democratically and dynamically as exemplified by Salaf ‘ulama’. He is also called as “reformist progressive” because he calls for ijtihad, not to be tied to a madhhab, criticizes the thoughts of mutakallimin, philosophers, and sufis, purifies faith doctrines, fights against tyranny in society to fight for justice and strengthen the ummah morality.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information / Pembimbing: PROMOTOR: PROF. DR. HM. AMIN ABDULLAH, MA
Uncontrolled Keywords: HADIS MUKHTALIF
Subjects: Tafsir Hadist
Divisions: Pascasarjana > Disertasi > Ilmu Agama Islam
Depositing User / Editor: Sugeng Hariyanto, SIP (sugeng.hariyanto@uin-suka.ac.id)
Date Deposited: 26 Jan 2015 00:50
Last Modified: 13 Apr 2015 03:49
URI: https://digilib.uin-suka.ac.id:80/id/eprint/15288

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