PHILOSOPHY IN RATIONALISLAMIC THOUGHTS OF HARUN NASUTION (A Contribution to Islamic Thought Development in Indonesia)

Nurisman , NIM. 973086 (2008) PHILOSOPHY IN RATIONALISLAMIC THOUGHTS OF HARUN NASUTION (A Contribution to Islamic Thought Development in Indonesia). Doctoral thesis, Pasca Sarjana.

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Abstract

This dissertation focuses on theanalysis of philosophy of thought of Harun Nasution in the context of Rational Islamic ideas. Since the 19701, Harun Nasution attempted to introduce rational thoughts – particularly inspired by Mu’tazilah theological thought, Moslem philosophers, and Islamic Reformers such as Muhammad Abduh – to Indonesian Islamic thinkers especially in high education institutions such as the State Institute of Islamic Studies. He did that by publishing the less-appreciated theological and philosophical writings. This dissertation explores the basic ideas of Harun Nasution by employing philosophy and historical approaches. The rationl Islamic thoughts are established on the principles of philosophy of logical natural la (God’ rational justice) and on the view that human beings are free. The logic of natural laws argues that in the universe God creates His constant and never changing laws (causality laws). The succss of human beings depends on their ability to understand and to apply the natural laws . Accordingly, God’s role within this concept is slowly diminishing while at the same time human’s freedom is increasing. A human being is an autonomous agent in his existence and history. He is responsible for his own life and his own deeds. Human’s roles cover not only freedom to do something but also ability to achieve the truth of revelation, as suggested by Muslim philosophers Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina and Ibn Rusyd Freedom lies in the heart of Harun Nasution’s intellectual other entities, for example, taking distance from the interpretation of revelation by previous scolars such as Muhammad Abduh. Harun reminds all Moslems of the importance of differentiating the universal qath’i rulings that are not subject to time aan space from the local particular of zhanni rulings that are subject to time and space. The differentiation exploration and the finding of scientific relation – coherence, correspondence and pragmatic relations. While the coherence sphere becomes the main concern of Harun, correspondence and pragmatic spheres are still open to any of his followers. This collective imagination of Indonesian Muslims, namely Ash’ariah or Ahl Sunnah wa al-jamaah theology founded on the belief of absolute will of God (theosentric). According to thi theology, God’s role is so dominant that human beings are weak and have limited freedom. Allah is perceived as personal God in His throne; He is the Absolute and Authoritarian. This theology, therefore, is traditional and non philosophical. Rational Islamic Thought of Harun Nasution gained great enthusiasm from enthusiasm from youngsters and government bureaucrats. Harun’ books became recommended reading materials in Islamic universities all over Indonesia. Among university student and youngsters, Harun succeded in injecting intellectual ethics, in which people are free to express their thoughts without the fear of being labeled with such tigma as heretics and apostates. Harun enlightened significant intellectual thought and pumped the fresh air into the Islamic intellectual discourse in Indonnesia. His learning experience in McGill University for his Master and Doctorate Program results in Harun excellent unrstanding and scientific attitudes. During the New Regime power, this particular type of Islamic thought was strongly needed by the govermment to mobilize the society in developing the nation. Hence, rational attitudes are indeedrequired and in tune with the govermment political will. In practice, therefore, Harun’s rational theology is so functional that it creates mutual symbioses. Criticisms on Harun’s rational Islamic ideas have long emerged. The term “Mua’tazilah” is a taboo word not well accepted among traditional Islamic schools. Harun Nasution is regarded as making too a simplification by attributing the Muslim intellectual backwardness to Asy’ariah’s fatalistic theology. He overlooked other variables such govermment policies responsible for the ummah sufferings and miseries. Another criticism is that understanding reasons as being is not always right. Harun is criticized a not applying critical in his writing and hence is insensitive to the oppressed people. On the other hand, Harun Naution has introduced a new ways of reading Islamic teachings still uncommon in the Islamic intellectual discourse in Indonesia. For that reason his contribution is enlightening. For further research, more careful analyses of Harun Nasution’s thought are required. Instead of applying rational scholastic methods, phenomenological and approaches to see Islamic teaching are thus deemed necessary.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Harun Nasution
Subjects: Ilmu Agama Islam
Divisions: Pascasarjana > Disertasi > Ilmu Agama Islam
Depositing User / Editor: Dra. Irhamny
Date Deposited: 26 Jan 2015 03:23
Last Modified: 13 Apr 2015 03:12
URI: http://digilib.uin-suka.ac.id/id/eprint/15306

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