PARSTISIPASI PEREMPUAN DALAM POLITIK Studi Peran, Peluang, dan Tantangan Perempuan Dalam Politik di Provinsi Jambi

Zarfinayenti, NIM. 08.3.700/BR (2019) PARSTISIPASI PEREMPUAN DALAM POLITIK Studi Peran, Peluang, dan Tantangan Perempuan Dalam Politik di Provinsi Jambi. Doctoral thesis, UIN SUNAN KALIJAGA YOGYAKARTA.

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Abstract

This research departs from the development of democracy in Indonesia which began a new chapter with the fall of the New Order regime in 1998 and the opening of the Reformation era evidenced by the implementation of the General Election. In the 2004 General Election, the public began to discuss women in the formal political arena based on the Election Law No. 12 2003 which contains representation of 30% of women and Law number 2 of 2008 which has been revised into Law No. 2 of 2011 concerning Political Parties. This process continued in the 2009 and 2014 elections with different themes. In the 2014 election there was a decrease in the number of women in parliament from 18% to 17%. The obligation of political parties to nominate at least 30% of female candidates from the total number of candidates in each electoral district is mandated by the Election Law and the existence of PKPU which allows the KPU to cross political parties from electoral participation in electoral districts whose female candidates are less than 30%. This has indeed succeeded in increasing the percentage of the nomination of female candidates, but this does not automatically increase women's electability. The same thing happens not only at the central level but also in regions such as Jambi. For this reason, the main problem in this research is: "How is the Participation of Women in Politics in Jambi Province?" This research is carried out in Jambi Province which consists of eleven cities-districts. This type of research is qualitative with the case study method that is a method that can reveal in detail the phenomenon or situation of the analysis unit in the form of individuals, groups of individuals or other entities based on information collected systematically. The main problem that will be the target of this study is the participation of women in politics in Jambi Province, a case study of five politicians by observing the roles, opportunities and challenges they face and the strategies that are carried out. The data collection techniques are through observation, interviews and documentation. The approach used is the gender approach and political sociology. The results of the study show that macro participation of women in politics in Indonesia since the reforms until the 2014 Election is classified as low both in quantity and quality. The quantity is still very far from 30%. In terms of quality, there are stillmany issues related to gender that have not been resolved, e.g., the still high level of poverty, low HDI, or the high rates of maternal and infant mortality. Nationally the main problem related to women's representation is institutional. If social problems are seen from people's opinions about women's representation such as UNDP survey results, social problems are not the main inhibiting factor. However, social and institutional problems become a major problem in Jambi Province. The most inhibiting socio-cultural problems are community customs and domestic barriers. Nationally there are practices of family politics (dynastic politics) which show that 36% have family relations with party leaders or elites. This is also the case in Jambi Province which shows female legislators who have family relations with the regional head or former regional head. This has a negative impact especially on preventing the implementation of a fair election. Dynasty politics undermine women's trust in being elected legislators and a form of abuse of affirmative policies for women. The movement of women's social and political organizations in Jambi is very dynamic, especially in women's organizations such as Nasyiatul ‘Aisyiah, Fatayat NU and BKMT, and Non- Governmental Organizations. However, substantially there are no activists from women's organizations who are members of the legislature in Jambi Province. Often women's organizations such as BKMT are used by female candidates. Likewise with KPI Jambi region, Non-Governmental Organizations that grew up during the reform period have not been maximized in fighting for women's political rights. In fact, often their voices are not heard by the female candidates themselves. Thus, social capital is not considered important by women and political parties. Political parties prioritize economic capital rather than social capital. Based on the experience of several politicians from 1999 to 2014, the structural patron was stronger than identity solidarity which caused the role of women in politics to not be maximized. The short-term strategy is not effective in building awareness of the people of Jambi which has implications for the long-term strategy, although gender development in Jambi Province has increased. The absence of short-term and long-term synchronization strategies is caused by a process that is cut in building awareness causing long-term strategies to be ineffective automatically. Thus, women's representation is not able to be achieved if individuals’ micro-awareness is not awakened resulted in a patriarchal structure to survive and there is no awakening of identity solidarity about Jambi. In the end, the long history of Jambi that was once led by a brave woman is still far from expectations.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information / Pembimbing: Prof. Dr. H. Bambang Cipto, MA
Uncontrolled Keywords: Democracy, Participation, Parliament, New Order, Reform, 30% Representation
Subjects: Gerakan Reformasi
Divisions: Pascasarjana > Disertasi > Study Islam
Depositing User / Editor: Drs. Mochammad Tantowi, M.Si.
Date Deposited: 24 Apr 2019 10:00
Last Modified: 24 Apr 2019 10:00
URI: http://digilib.uin-suka.ac.id/id/eprint/34778

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