ISLAMISM, GOVERNMENT REGULATION, AND THE AHMADIYAH CONTROVERSIES IN INDONESIA; PERSATUAN PEMUDA MUSLIM SE-EROPA (PPME):ITSQUALIFIED FOUNDERS, PROGRESSION AND NATURE; ISLAMISM IN POLITICS: INTEGRATION AND PERSECUTION IN EGYPT

Ismatu, Ropi and Sujadi, . and Christina, DeGregorio (2010) ISLAMISM, GOVERNMENT REGULATION, AND THE AHMADIYAH CONTROVERSIES IN INDONESIA; PERSATUAN PEMUDA MUSLIM SE-EROPA (PPME):ITSQUALIFIED FOUNDERS, PROGRESSION AND NATURE; ISLAMISM IN POLITICS: INTEGRATION AND PERSECUTION IN EGYPT. Al-Jamiah, Vol 48 (2). pp. 1-255. ISSN 0126-012X

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Abstract

(1) This article concentrates on the history of Persatuan Pemuda Muslim se- Eropa (PPME, Young Muslims Association in Europe), depicting its founders’qualifications, historical founding, and nature, which has been against practical politics, and restructure and expansion. This association remains the largest Indonesian Islam-oriented Muslim association in Europe. However, there has been little research done on this association, despite its significant contributions to the socio-cultural and religous activities of Indonesian Muslims in Europe, particularly in the Netherlands and Germany. Therefore, this article aims to fill the gap in academic research, dealing with its creation and development up till the present. To deal with this subject, a historical method emphasizing a chronological approach is applied. In addition to historical evidence, oral sources were primarily used due to the scarcity of written documents. (2)Over the past three decades, Ahmadiyah has been at the center of one of the most significant controversies within the Indonesian Muslim community, particularly after the issuance of MUI’s (Majelis Ulama Indonesia/The Council of Indonesian Ulama) Fatwas in 1980 and 2005 respectively. This paper undertakes a discussion of Ahmadiyah, reviewing its initial contacts with several Muslim organizations such as Muhammadiyah and Syarikat Islam, its roles in disseminating the idea of progressive and modern Islam among Muslim scholars in 1940s to 1960s. The second part will review internal and external factors contributing to the issuance of MUI Fatwa 1980 in the light of preserving orthodoxy within the Indonesian Muslim community. It will also highlight in brief the government response toward the Ahmadiyah’s case. The last part focuses mainly on the Fatwa 2005 and its impact on the more strained relationships within the Muslim community in Indonesia. It will examine socio-political conditions before and after the Fatwa 2005 in light of the steady rise of a new model of Islamism in Indonesia and the conservative shift within the MUI itself, particularly after the downfall of the New Order’s regime in 1998. The arguments ‘pro and contra’ Fatwa 2005, as well as the ‘awkward position’ of the new government on this issue, will be analysed in detail. (3) Matrifocality has been a rooted tradition in the social history of the community in Aceh. The principles of matrifocality have also affected on how women are positioned in the community, and the socio-gender relation within the community. The fact that Aceh has strongly associated to the Islamic values that claimed to support the paternal traditions. Apparently, the Islamic values and the local matrifocality practices juxtaposed through the roles of adat, which considered as inseparable to Islamic law or teaching, or in local term known as zat ngeun sifeut. Another point in revisiting matrifocality in Aceh in Aceh is an examination of how gender state ideology, particularly during the New Order Regime disregarded some local gender practices across some ethnics in the archipelago. Meanwhile, the state also hegemonied and promoted particular gender state ideology such as state ibuism. Nonetheless, the modernity and social changes have also contributed to the shifting of some matrifocality practices in contemporary Acehnese society. However, since the matrifocality has a strong root in the social life of the community, the principles of the matrifocality still survived until currently, although it transformed into ‘new matrifocality’ practices. (4) This paper tries to portray the why in which Islamism reacted to political constellation in the Egyptian context from the time of Anwar Sadat to of Hosni Mubarak. It shows that the Egyptian government from time to time often adopts a harsh policy toward any forms of extremism in the name of Islam. However, persecution led to nothing but the increase of radical Islamism. This occurred because the Islamist movement failed to integrate their ideas in the real political domain. Failure in integration to both political and social life fueled further exclusivism. (5) Looking at the two functions of ownership which include the individual and social, Qaradawi explores such a elationship and analyzes its implication for social justice. Zaka>t has multiple functions: the religious, economic, and social. It constitutes the earliest concept of mutual social responsibility proposed by Islam to achieve social justice. Zaka>t serves as a means to both guarantee social security and strengthen social solidarity. From this perspective, Qaradawi moves forward to link up the concept of zaka>t with the Islamic system of economics. The linkage between zaka>t and the Islamic system of economics is visible in the ways Qaradawi investigates various aspects of ownership and zaka>t in Islam. This can particularly be seen in his analysis that the concept of Islamic insurance coheres with the interpretation of al-gha>rimi>n, one of the groups deserving to the income of zaka>t and in his emphasis that mutual social responsibility, which aims to fulfill the needs of adequate livelihood, can be supplied only by zaka>t. This article argues that these views in turn confirm Qaradawi’s concern with the importance of zaka>t as the foundation of both the social and economic systems of Islam. This article also emphasizes that, for Qaradawi, different from voluntary charity that can only fulfill the minimum requirement of the needs of livelihood, zaka>t can supply the answer to cover all the needs of livelihood of Muslim society. (6)The beginnings of Western interest in the Qur’a>n can be traced back to the appearance of the first complete translation of the Qur’a>n into Latin by Robert of Ketton in the twelfth century when the Muslim and Western Christian worlds has begun a long-running confrontation. In the eighteenth century, Western scholars began to be interested in studying the history and sources of the Qur’a>n. The Qur’a>nic narrative, which has its parallels in the Judeo-Christian traditions, has been studied from the historical perspective. In this approach, everything in the Qur’a>n that can be also found in earlier scriptures, is considered as borrowed, and every story that the Qur’a>n modifies is viewed as distorted. Recent Western studies have shifted into a new arena, studying the contents and styles of the Qur’a>nic narrative by analyzing its discourse and narrativity.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Indonesian nationalism, traditionalists, modernists, progressive muslims, Ahmadiyah, MUI, Fatwa, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, matrifocality, Aceh, gender, shari‘a law, Islamism, Egypt, Muslim Brotherhood, Modern Arab World, zakat, Islamic economics, Qaradawi, security, solidarity, Western scholarship, Qur’a>nic studies, Judeo-Christian source
Subjects: Al Jamiah Jurnal
Divisions: Jurnal > 4. Al Jami’ah
Depositing User / Editor: Edi Prasetya [edi_hoki]
Date Deposited: 18 Apr 2013 11:26
Last Modified: 17 Sep 2016 05:32
URI: http://digilib.uin-suka.ac.id/id/eprint/7045

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